"[...] on the day all combinations are exhausted, the result should remain secret, and in any case the universe will have completed its cycle - and we will all be consumed in the dazzling glory of the great Metacyclosynchrotron."

Umberto Eco, Foucault's Pendulum

## =======

Preface

=======

On March 13th, 1997, the idea of a generator for the calculation of pseudo-random numbers emerged. Inspired by Donald E. Knuth's algorithm P [1], the generator basically operates on permutations. In fact, no arithmetic operations are required; hence the name: naRND "non-arithmetic random". The algorithm is open source and is published under the 3-clause BSD license [2].

Due to variations in length and number of permutations used, naRND is more of a family of generators than a single generator. Each generator derived from naRND is referred to as naPRNG "non-arithmetic pseudo-random number generator".

***Special note**

Random numbers are useful, often even necessary, e.g. for simulations, cryptography and statistics, to name but a few. Each of them requires special qualities. There is no theoretical proof that one of the naPRNGs described here satisfies one of these requirements.

Although theoretical studies are missing, many configurations of naRND passed the empirical tests including the BigCrush test battery [3] (see [Tests]->[TestU01]). In addition, the algorithm is very flexible and available as open source. In the hope that the algorithm is useful, this site publishes the documentation of the algorithm and of the test results, and provides downloading of source code, release version, random data samples and detailed test results.

Any feedback is very welcome! [Contact]

## =============

Documentation

=============

### ---------

Algorithm

---------

Regardless of the fact that the current implementation is based on circularly linked nodes, it is easier to understand the algorithm implemented with arrays and index pointers. Accordingly, each naPRNG consists of

- a number of S arrays (S >= 1), denoted as "S-Box" (i.e. substitution box), each containing a permutation of R (R >= 2) items / references {0, 1, ..., R-1},
- two references, denoted "Last" and "Iterator" and
- a set of instructions on how an iteration step is performed to obtain the next random item.

There are two operation modes V1 "Version 1" and V2 "Version 2", which affect the generation of the random items. In addition, two substitution modes "Strict" and "Loose" are defined. The operation modes are described in the following pseudocodes. The substitution mode is explained in the context of the implementation using nodes (see [Documentation]->[Pseudocode]->[Node-based]).

The values S := 4 and R := 256 were chosen as the standard for the number of substitution boxes and the number of items / references. Thus, in strict mode, a substitution box is a permutation of exactly all the different values represented by one byte.

The notation for an naPRNG is defined as "naRND [OperationMode, SubstitutionMode] [NumberOfSubstitutionBoxes, NumberOfReferences]".

In 2007 it turned out that another generator exists, which works similar to an naPRNG with a single S-Box. This generator is RC4 [4], designed by Ron Rivest in 1987. For a comparison of RC4 with the present algorithm, a generic version of ARC4 (Alleged RC4) was implemented (see [Documentation]->[Library]->[ARC4Test]) and systematically tested for period lengths (see [Tests]->[Periods]->[ARC4]).

***Special note**

If a particular state of the generator is known, all previous states can be recovered. For this reason, naRND is initially not suitable for cryptographic applications. The class naCrypt uses secure random numbers and the function GatherEntropy to compensate for this problem (see [Documentation]->[C# Library]->[naCrypt]).

Secure random numbers are only available in strict substitution mode. In addition the number of references has to be a power of 2. A secure random number is defined as XOR of the values referenced by Last and Iterator.

### ----------

Pseudocode

----------

#### Standard V1

-----------

In the following pseudocode, one iterator is used for the S-Boxes and another one for the items / references. As shown later, the node-based implementation requires only a single combined iterator. The initialization takes place with the identity permutation.

Declaration: sbox[4][256]: 4 S-Boxes with 256 items / references each s: sbox Iterator | 0 <= s < 4 r: reference Iterator | 0 <= r < 256 l: Last reference z: output

Initialization: for i from 0 to 3 for j from 0 to 255 sbox[i][j] := j s := 0 r := 0 l := 255, l can not be chosen freely (*)

Iteration: swap sbox[s][r] and sbox[s][l] l := sbox[s][r] s := (s + 1) mod 4 if s equals 0 r := (r + 1) mod 256 z := sbox[s][r]

(*) Considering a combined Iterator (see [Documentation]->[Pseudocode]->[Node-based]), Last is the node which was referenced by the Iterator's prior position.

#### Standard V2

-----------

Declaration and initialization are identical to mode V1, albeit the value of l can be chosen freely (0 <= l < 256). The main difference to V1 is the assignment of the reference Last (l). Furthermore, as the test results of the BigCrush test battery [3] suggest, the assignment of z is adapted. Thus it is not the value referenced by Iterator but the one referenced by Last. In general, the operation mode V1 seems to be the better choice (see [Tests]->[TestU01]):

Iteration: swap sbox[s][r] and sbox[s][l] l := sbox[s][l] s := (s + 1) mod 4 if s equals 0 r := (r + 1) mod 256 z := sbox[s][l]

#### Node-based

----------

As mentioned above, the node-based implementation does not require two seperate iterators. The following figure shows the positions through which the combined iterator runs, beginning with the upper left corner:

* __ __ __ ___ | | | | | | | | | S-Box[0]: 0 | 1 | 2 | ... | R-1 | | | | | | | | S-Box[1]: 0 | 1 | 2 | ... | R-1 | | | | | | | | ... . . . . . . ... . . | | | | | | | | S-Box[S-1]: 0 | 1 | 2 | ... | R-1 |__| |__| |__| |__| | *

A naNode "non-arithmetic node" is defined as a container which consists of

- a reference to the next naNode (i.e. iterating through the structure),
- a reference to a naNode on the same level (i.e. the same S-Box) as the next naNode and
- an item to be returned as the output.

The figure below shows the structure of such a node, where "i", "j" and "k" mark the indices of the nodes:

Ni [next node Nj] [referenced node Nk] [item Zi]

For arrays, the elements of the S-Boxes function as index pointers (references) as well as items for the output. With naNodes, the references are real references / pointers to other naNodes, whereas the items are used exclusively for output. This seperates the concepts of references and items. If these items are the identity permutation of {0, 1, 2, ..., R-1}, the output is identical to the array-based implementation. This special configuration is called "Strict". Any other is called "Loose". Please note that the two types of implementation are not equivalent in Loose mode.

The naPRNG [V1, Strict] [2, 4] is represented by 8 naNodes. When these nodes are arranged like the elements in the S-Boxes, the relationship between the two implementations becomes obvious. The figure below shows the generator initialized by the identity permutation:

N0 [N1] N2 [N3] N4 [N5] N6 [N7] [N1] [N3] [N5] [N7] [0] [1] [2] [3] N1 [N2] N3 [N4] N5 [N6] N7 [N0] [N0] [N2] [N4] [N6] [0] [1] [2] [3]

Let Iterator be at the position of N0 and Last be equal to N6, so the current output is 0, which is the item of node N1, which itself is referenced by Iterator. First, the reference of Iterator (N1) is swapped with the reference of Last (N7). In the following step, set Last to the new reference of Iterator, which is now N7. Thereafter, Iterator is set to its next node N1. The output is again 0, the item of N0, referenced by the current Iterator.

In the following, the elements of naPRNGs are mentioned synonymously as either S-Boxes or node structures. In strict substitution mode, both implementations are equivalent to each other. Please note that array-based generators in loose mode are degenerated and should only be used intentionally. The application Tools (see [Documentation]->[Applications]->[Tools]) represents the configuration shown in the last example in a different and simpler way, which resembles more of an implementation with arrays than with nodes:

Identity -> Iteration 1 -> Iteration 2 S 0 1 2 3 3 1 2 0 S 3 1 2 0 0 1 2 3 S 0 1 2 3 3 1 2 0 R L R L R L

Animation of the full period of naRND [V1, Strict] [2, 4] initialized with identity permutations:

Here, "S" and "R" denote the position of Iterator according to the y and x coordinates, while "S" and "L" represent the position of Last.

### ---------------

Recommendations

---------------

This chapter provides recommendations and limitations for the use of naPRNGs based on empirical tests and practical considerations.

#### Initialization

--------------

If all the S-Boxes of a generator represent the same permutation, the generator is in a state denoted as "Isostate". As a closer examination of the period lengths shows, generators initialized by such an Isostate produce longer period lengths on average (see [Tests]->[Periods]->[naRND]).

The initialization as used in the pseudocodes applies the identity permutation to all the S-Boxes, hence the generator is in an Isostate. The first outputs of a generator initialized with the identity permutation tend not to be very random. It is recommended to discard the first S*R*R items. If a generator is randomly initialized, it is very likely that the period length is sufficient, but it is also possible to end up with very short period lengths.

***Special note**

Every naPRNG has exactly one state which leads to a period length of S*R and corresponding quasi periods of length R. If S (S > 1) S-Boxes are assumed, the first S-1 S-Boxes of this special state represent the identity permutation. The elements of the last S-Box represent the identity permutation rotated by one position to the left. The actual state of Last and Iterator is not important in this context.

#### Dimensions

----------

The recommended values for the number of substitution boxes and the number of references are S := 4 and R := 256. Presumably, larger values for R and S lead to longer period lengths and more random behaviour on a global scale (see [Tests]->[Periods]->[naRND]), although there are exceptions where S is a fraction of R.

***Special note**

For generators of version V1 it is strongly recommended to select more than one S-Box. Otherwise, the generator will show very short period lengths. Unlike all other configurations, there is no inversive function. Therefore, this configuration is considered to be degenerated and does not represent a pseudo-random number generator at all.

#### Substitution mode

-----------------

Generators in strict mode provide random values between 0 and R-1. What if, for example, a random stream of {"A", "C", "G", "T") is to be generated? The substitution mode of this generator is "Loose" due to the output items A, C, G and T. To achieve this a set of arrays with the items to be returned must be passed as an argument during initialization. This set of arrays has the same dimensions as the array for the substitution boxes. The algorithm does not need an additional step to return items instead of values because the values in strict mode are themselves items. The given example will look like this:

N0 [N1] N2 [N3] N4 [N5] N6 [N7] [N1] [N3] [N5] [N7] ["A"] ["C"] ["G"] ["T"] N1 [N2] N3 [N4] N5 [N6] N7 [N0] [N0] [N2] [N4] [N6] ["A"] ["C"] ["G"] ["T"]

According to the example given above, the generator consists of 2 S-Boxes and 4 references per S-Box and thus a value of R := 4. This generator is quite poor due to its period length. To prevent this, simply set R to a multiple of 4. For example, if 12 references are chosen, each item must occur 3 times. If the distribution of the items is not proportional, the output will vary in the same way. Besides, it might also be appropriate to set different items for each S-Box.

### ----------

C# Library

----------

#### naRND

-----

This is the basic, generic class for the library. For special purposes in terms of efficiency it is intended to implement a native, customer-specific version of naRND, which is either based on nodes or arrays. The given implementation is based on nodes consisting of the essential elements (cf. [Documentation]->[Algorithm]->[Node-based]) as well as some additional elements as

- the S-Box index of the node,
- the reference index of the node and
- a reference to the previous node.

The indices are helpful during initialization, the visualization of the generator's state and for test purposes. The reference to the previous node is used to speed up recovery of the previous state. In addition, the class contains an indexed list of references to each node, e.g. for a faster and easier initialization process.

With the function GatherEntropy it is possible to influence the state of the generator by data that is passed as an argument.

#### naStrict

--------

With the class naStrict, which is derived from the class naRND, each naPRNG in strict substitution mode, based on bytes can be generated. Except naTest, all naPRNGs used in the applications (see [Documentation]->[Applications]) are derived from this class.

#### napRND

------

As the "p" indicates, this is a simulation of a parallel non-arithmetic random number generator. This class represents only a first basic scheme. With arrays, a much more efficient implementation can be achieved.

#### naPool

------

naPool is a static V2 standard generator providing bytes and integers with or without an upper bound as well as byte arrays. The function Flush saves the state to the hard disk drive. GatherEntropy is a function to influence the generators state by data passed as an argument.

#### naCrypt

-------

A standard V2 version generator with additional functionality for encryption and decryption. The application Crypt shows the usage of this class (see [Documentation]->[Applications]->[Crypt])

#### naTest

------

This is a special implementation for calculating the period and quasi-period lengths of naPRNGs with the application Period (see [Documentation]->[Applications]->[Period]).

#### naTools

-------

The naTools class provides some simple yet useful functions for initializing, storing, visualizing and testing naPRNGs.

#### ARC4Test

--------

This is a specific implementation of the Alleged RC4 Algorithm, which is used to compute its period lengths systematically for comparison with the results for naPRNGs (see [Documentation]->[Applications]->[Period]).

### ---------------

C# Applications

---------------

#### Tools

-----

With this application it is very easy to write random data to a file or to take a look at the internal state of a generator. The generator can be selected as naStrict, naTest, napRND, naPool, ARC4Test or the system generator. Depending on the selected generator, some initialization options, such as the number of S-Boxes and References, are displayed and can be modified. The binary output is available for all generators, as is the output as text on the screen. If the "State" option is available for output, the state can also be displayed on the screen and it is possible to save or load such a state.

#### Period

------

This application detects the period lengths for naPRNGs of both versions in strict mode as well as for the ARC4 algorithm. The option "Verbose" takes all possible states into account, whereas otherwise only Isostates are considered. If a computation is cancelled, the intermediate configuration will be stored, in order to continue later.

In addition to periods in the sequence of the original random numbers (z1, ..., zi), the program also recognizes "quasi-periods" in the sequence of the differences (d1, ..., di) between successive random numbers zi and zi+1, defined as di := |(zi+1 - zi)|, assuming that the zi are elements of the cyclic group Zn with n := R (the number of references).

A table of results as well as a file for download with all detailed results can be found here: [Tests]->[Periods].

#### Crypt

-----

Crypt is an application for my private use and an implementation of some ideas. When the button with the logo is pressed, the option to collect entropy via mouse movements is offered. The option "High reliability" is more robust to bit errors which may occur later during file transfer or storage. In reverse, the output will be approximately double the size. In general, there are two files to be created. The ".nacrypt" file contains the encrypted data whereas the ".nakey" file functions as a salt in addition to the optional password.

***Special note**

Please make sure to back up your data before using this program. It is just a demonstrator. There is no proof that the application works properly in all cases. In addition, there is no evidence that the encryption is sufficient for any purpose. Use at your own risk.

#### Key

---

Key uses a low level keyboard hook to encrypt keyboard inputs with a one-way function. It is thus possible to use very simple and easy-to-remember online passwords while remaining highly secure. Click on the "?" to get more information. For proper use, start the program automatically. Once a key is generated, the program starts as a background process.

***Special note**

Please make sure to write down plain and generated passwords when using this program. It is just a demonstrator. There is no proof that the application works properly in all cases. In addition, there is no evidence that the encryption is sufficient for any purpose. Use at your own risk.

## =====

Tests

=====

### -------

Periods

-------

Many configurations have been systematically tested for period and quasi-period lengths (cf. [Documentation]->[Applications]->[Period]). The downloads contain detailed information.

#### naRND

-----

The following table shows the three smallest periods "Pi" and corresponding quasi-periods "Qi" for the configurations specified by the operation mode "V" {V1, V2}, the number of substitution boxes "S" and the number of references "R". Please note that generators of type V1 with only one S-Box are not considered as they should not be used at all (cf. [Documentation]->[Recommendations]->[Dimensions]):

V S R P1 Q1 P2 Q2 P3 Q3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V1 2 2 4 2 12 6 - - 3 6 2 30 10 30 (30) 4 8 2 56 14 120 30 5 10 2 90 18 590 (590) 6 12 2 36 18 60 30 7 14 2 168 24 182 26 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 2 6 3 42 21 - - 3 9 3 18 6 36 12 4 12 3 60 (60) 252 63 5 15 3 30 6 60 12 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 2 8 4 120 60 - - 3 12 4 60 (60) 276 92 4 16 4 48 12 400 100 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 2 10 5 30 15 70 35 3 15 5 30 10 60 (60) 4 20 5 60 (60) 140 35 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V2 1 2 2 1 6 3 - - 3 3 1 6 2 15 (15) 4 4 1 24 (24) 28 7 5 5 1 10 2 50 (50) 6 6 1 30 5 66 22 7 7 1 14 2 462 (462) 8 8 1 16 2 24 3 9 9 1 18 2 45 5 10 10 1 60 12 80 16 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 2 4 2 28 14 - - 3 6 2 30 10 66 22 4 8 2 16 (16) 24 12 5 10 2 80 16 90 18 6 12 2 24 (24) 60 30 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 2 6 3 30 15 - - 3 9 3 18 6 45 15 4 12 3 84 21 180 45 5 15 3 30 6 195 (195) ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 2 8 4 24 12 56 28 3 12 4 132 44 204 68 4 16 4 112 28 240 60 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 2 10 5 630 315 - - 3 15 5 30 10 195 (195) 4 20 5 60 15 120 (120)

If only Isostates "Iso" are considered, the smallest related period lengths are much larger (cf. [Documentation]->[Recommendations]->[Initialization]):

V S R P1 (Iso) Q1 (Iso) ---------------------------------------------------- V1 2 2 12 6 3 30 10 4 56 14 5 90 18 6 132 22 7 182 26 ------------------------------------------- 3 2 42 21 3 36 12 4 60 (60) 5 2.357.385 471.477 ------------------------------------------- 4 2 120 60 3 276 92 4 21.392 5.348 ------------------------------------------- 5 2 30 15 3 19.230 (19.230) 4 439.940 109.985 ---------------------------------------------------- V2 2 2 28 14 3 30 10 4 16 (16) 5 280 (280) 6 1.572 786 ------------------------------------------- 3 2 30 15 3 45 15 4 708 177 5 86.280 (86.280) ------------------------------------------- 4 2 24 12 3 1.176 392 4 720 (720) ------------------------------------------- 5 2 630 315 3 195 (195) 4 99.580 (99.580)

#### ARC4

----

The Alleged RC4 algorithm [4] was also systematically examined for period lengths. The results show a much more fragmented picture with many small period lengths.

### -------

Diehard

-------

The standard generators of versions V1 and V2 were tested with the Diehard test battery [5]. Starting with the identity permutation, 10 chunks of 10 MB each were used. The program terminated with an error for the first chunk of the V2 version generator. The output used for V2 was the value referenced by Iterator instead of the one referenced by Last (cf. [Documentation]->[Pseudocode]->[Standard V2]).

### -------

TestU01

-------

As one of the hardest tests, the BigCrush test battery [3] revealed some problems with the generators of version V2. The default output was the item referenced by Iterator. It turned out that using the item referenced by Last leads to better results. Furthermore, generators with operation mode V1 generally appear to be the better choice.

#### Bytes

-----

The following table summarizes the test results obtained with the BigCrush test battery. "V" is the version / operation mode and "S" is the number of S-Boxes used. The substitution mode is Strict and the number of references is set to R := 256. "Iter", "Last" and "Secure" indicate which output was taken as a random number (cf. [Documentation]->[Algorithm]). The entries indicate the number of failed tests. The entry "-" means that all tests were passed:

V S Iter Last Secure ------------------------------------------------ V1 2 error error error 3 - 2 - 4 - 4 1 5 - - - 6 - 1 - 7 - - - 8 - 2 - ------------------------------------------------ V2 1 17 4 1 2 9 3 2 3 5 - 1 4 4 - - 5 1 1 - 6 1 - - 7 - - - 8 2 - 3

#### Nibbles

-------

When using only 16 references, the results are as shown in the following table. An empty entry indicates that no test has been applied to the corresponding configuration:

V S Iter Last Secure ------------------------------------------------ V1 4 42 14 5 17 8 6 18 5 7 2 6 8 23 11 ------------------------------------------------ V2 4 39 10 5 22 10 6 14 6 7 9 10 8 20 10

## =========

Downloads

=========

### ----------

C# Release

----------

This is the release version based on the latest C# Suite. There is no installation required. Just unpack and start the ".exe". Your antivirus software might warn you because the file is unknown. The application Key can also be downloaded separately: [Downloads]->[Side projects]->[Key].

### --------

C# Suite

--------

The latest version of the source code, including the library (cf. [Documentation]->[C# Library]) and all applications (cf. [Documentation]->[C# Applications]).

There is also an older version available. The implementation is based on arrays. Therefore, it is retained as an illustrative material. Please note that the notation is different and many errors can be found. Furthermore, the output used for V2 is the value referenced by Iterator instead of the one referenced by Last (cf. [Documentation]->[Pseudocode]->[Standard V2]). Loose mode of this version is not equivalent to the current Loose mode (cf. [Documentation]->[Pseudocode]->[Node-based]).

### --------

C Source

--------

This source code comes with many limitations, since the initial state is always the identity permutation. It was written solely to perform tests with TestU01 [3] (cf. [Tests]->[TestU01]).

### ----

Data

----

A binary file of the specified size is created for download. The standard generator naPRNG [V2, Strict] [4, 256] is used to generate the pseudo-random numbers. The output used is the value referenced by Iterator instead of the value referenced by Last (cf. [Documentation]->[Pseudocode]->[Standard V2]).

### -------------

Side projects

-------------

#### SmpGraphics

-----------

The latest source code for Clock, Sphere and the whole graphics engine which is still under construction.

#### Clock

-----

Clock is a simple clock for the desktop. As with the other applications, there is no installation required. Just unpack and start the "Clock.exe". Your antivirus software might warn you because the file is unknown. After starting, click on the clock to display the title bar, and then click the "?" for more information.

#### Sphere

------

Sphere is a demonstration of the graphics engine with no special use. Double click toggles between full screen and window mode. Right click toggles between different demonstration modi. Just unpack and start the "Sphere.exe". Your antivirus software might warn you because the file is unknown.

#### Key

---

Key uses a low level keyboard hook to encrypt keyboard inputs with a one-way function. It is thus possible to use very simple and easy-to-remember online passwords while remaining highly secure. Click on the "?" to get more information. For proper use, start the program automatically. Once a key is generated, the program starts as a background process. There is no installation required. Just unpack and start the "Key.exe". Your antivirus software might warn you because the file is unknown.

Every online service has its own rules for valid passwords. As a result, the generated passwords may not always be accepted although the most common rules are taken into account.

***Special note**

Please make sure to write down plain and generated passwords when using this program. It is just a demonstrator. There is no proof that the application works properly in all cases. In addition, there is no evidence that the encryption is sufficient for any purpose. Use at your own risk.

## ==========

References

==========

- [1] Donald E. Knuth -> http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~uno/, The Art of Computer Programming, VOLUME 2 Seminumerical Algorithms, Third Edition (Addison-Wesley, 1998), xiv+762pp, Section 3.3.2
- [2] 3-clause BSD license -> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_licenses
- [3] P. L'Ecuyer and R. Simard, TestU01: A C Library for Empirical Testing of Random Number Generators, ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, Vol. 33, 4, article 22, 2007 -> http://simul.iro.umontreal.ca/testu01/tu01.html
- [4] RC4 -> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RC4
- [5] Diehard tests -> https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diehard_tests

## ============

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============

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## ===================

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